## Early Math Counts Glossary

#### A

**Above**—In extended space over and not touching; at a higher level than

**Actual**—Exist in act or fact; real

**Add**—Increase in amount or number

**After**—Behind in position or place; later in time than

**Amount**—The total or sum

**Afternoon**—The time from noon or lunchtime to evening

**All done**—Finished

**Altogether**—In total

**Around**—On every side of

**Ascending**—Arranged from smallest to largest

**Attribute**—A characteristic like size, shape or color

#### B

**Balance**—To make equal or to be equal

**Bar Graph**—A graph using parallel bars of varying lengths to demonstrate an amount or quantity

**Before**—In front of

**Behind**—At the back of

**Big**—Of considerable size

**Bye bye**—An expression used when departing another’s company

#### C

**Calculate**—To determine the amount or number of something

**Certain**—Inevitable; will definitely happen

**Characteristics/Attributes**—Qualities or features of someone or something

**Circle**—A two-dimensional shape made by drawing a curve that is always the same distance from the center

**Classify**—To arrange a group of people or things items in classes or categories according to shared characteristics and assigning a name to the grouping

**Clock**—Measures time

**Closed**—To move from an open position

**Clue**—A piece of evidence or information used to solve a problem

**Collect**—To bring together in a group; gather

**Compare**—To estimate, measure or note the similarity or dissimilarity between two or more things

**Conclusion**—The end or close; the final decision

**Cone**—A solid shape with a circular base and a curved surface that tapers to a point

**Corresponding**—Similar in function and form

**Count**—To identify the amount of something by number

**Crescent**—The shape of the visible part of the moon when it is less than half full; a shape that is a single curve that is broad in the center and tapers to a point at each end

**Cube**—A solid shape that has six square faces all equal in size, eight vertices and twelve equal edges

**Cylinder**—A solid shape with one curved surface and two identical bases

#### D

**Data**—Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis

**Descending order**—Arranged from largest to smallest

**Diagonal**—In a slanted direction

**Diamond**—A rhombus where all four sides are equal

**Difference**—The distance between two numbers (subtraction)

**Different**—Not similar in size, shape, color or other characteristic

**Dime**—A coin worth 10 cents (a tenth of a dollar)

**Direction**—The course or path on which something or someone is moving

**Distance**—The length between two points

**Divide**—To separate or to be separated into parts

**Down**—To direct or move to a lower place or position

#### E

**Edge**—The side of a polygon where two faces of a solid figure meet

**Eighth**—One of eight equal parts of the shape

**Equal shares**—To divide a whole fairly and equally; fair distribution

**Equals**—To be the same in number or amount

**Estimate**—To form an approximate judgment or opinion regarding the amount, worth, size, weight, etc., of; to calculate approximately

**Even**—Number that is divisible by two; numbers that end in 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8

**Evening**—The period of time at the end of the day, usually from about six p.m. to bedtime

#### F

**Face**—A flat surface of a three-dimensional shape

**Far**—Over a large expanse of space or time

**Fewest**—A small number of, opposite of the term “most”

**First**—An ordinal number; number one; the beginning one

**Flip**—To turn over

**Fourth**—One of four equal parts of the shape

**Fraction**—Any part of a group

**Front of**—To locate before or ahead of

#### G

**Get ready**—To prepare for an event or action

**Go**—To move from place or point to another

**Graph**—A diagram that exhibits a relationship between two sets of numbers as a set of points having coordinates determined by the relationship

**Greatest amount**—Largest amount; the one with the most

**Greater than**—More than; shows relationship between numbers

**Groups**—A number of things or people that are located close together or are classed together

**Growing pattern**—A pattern that shows an increasing or decreasing sequence and is used to help children analyze mathematical changes

#### H

**Half**—One of two equal parts of the shape

**Heart**—A shape that is comprised of two circles touching along a horizontal axis and the union of a V shape centered at the bottom of the circles (♥)

**Heavier**—To have greater weight

**Height**—The measurement from top to bottom (usually the terms tall, taller, tallest and short, shorter, shortest are used when referring to height)

**Hello**—An expression used as a greeting when meeting or seeing someone

**Hexagon**—A shape with six straight sides and six corners

**Horizontal**—Parallel to the plane of the horizon

**How many**—The total or sum

**Hour**—A period of time equal to a twenty-fourth of a day and night and divided into 60 minutes

#### I

**Identify**—Establish or indicate who or what (someone or something) is

**Impossible**—No chance; will not happen

**In common**—To share equally

**Inch**—A unit for measuring length

**Increase**—To get larger in size or number

**Inside**—Interior, in something

#### L

**Label**—A descriptive term

**Least**—To have the smallest quantity or number

**Length**—The longest extent of anything as measured from end to end

**Length of time**—The extent or duration

**Less**—Not as many as

**Less than**—A value that is smaller in number

**Lighter**—Having less weight than

**Line of Symmetry**—To divide an object or design in half so that both sides are the same

**Little**—Small in size

**Longer than**—To have an extended duration of time comparatively

**Long, Longer, Longest**—Comparison words for length

#### M

**Measure**—Use of standard units to find out size or quantity in regard to length, breadth, height, area, mass, weight, volume, capacity, temperature and time

**Middle**—A point dividing a line segment or group in half

**Minute**—A period of time equal to sixty seconds or a sixtieth of an hour

**More than**—A value that is higher or greater in number

**More than, Less than, The same**—Words used to compare quantity

**Morning**—The period of time from sunrise to noon

**Most**—To have the greatest quantity or number

#### N

**Next to**—Beside, along

**Near**—Close to

**Nickel**—A coin worth five cents (a fifth of a dollar)

**Night**—The period of darkness in each twenty-four hours; the time from sunset to sunrise

**Nonstandard**—Other than standard

**Number**—Used to describe quantities or values

**Number line**—A line marked with numbers

**Numeral**—The symbol used to represent a number or “how many”

**Numerical order**—A number sequence that is arranged together in a systematic form

#### O

**Octagon**—A polygon with eight sides (a stop sign is an octagon)

**Odd**—A number that is not evenly divisible by two; numbers that end in 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9

**On**—To position at the upper surface of, touching from above

**Open**—To move from a closed position

**Ordinal numbers**—Numbers that show place or position (e.g., 1st, 2nd, 3rd)

**Oval**—A stretched-out circle shaped like an egg

**Over**—To extend directly upward from

#### P

**Pattern**—Something that repeats more than once

**Penny**—One cent

**Pentagon**—A polygon with five sides

**Plus**—The addition of

**Point**—An exact position or location

**Polygon**—A plane shape having three or more straight sides

**Positional words**—Words that allow you to follow and give directions and to use language precisely

**Possible**—A chance that something might happen

**Predict**—To guess what will happen next

**Prism**—A solid three-dimensional shape with two identical bases and sides that are parallelograms

**Probability**—The chance that something is going to happen

#### Q

**Quadrilateral**—A polygon with four sides

**Quarter**—A coin worth 25 cents (a quarter of a dollar)

#### R

**Recognition** **of numerals**—To identify numbers by word or symbol

**Record**—To write down or indicate

**Rectangle**—A four-sided flat shape with straight sides and interior angles that are all right angles (90°); also, opposite sides are parallel and of equal length (a square is a special type of rectangle)

**Relative positioning**—Where one object is in relation to another object

**Remain**—Amount left over

**Repeating**—To do or make again and again

**Represents**—To show or stand for

**Round**—To be shaped like a circle

#### S

**Same**—Identical in kind or quantity

**Second**—An ordinal number; the position after first; a unit of tie

**Sequence**—An ordered set of numbers, shapes or other mathematical objects arranged according to a rule

**Shape**—A form or outline

**Short, Shorter, Shortest**—Comparison words for length

**Shorter than**—To have less time or length comparatively

**Similar**—To have like attributes

**Skip count**—To count forwards or backwards in multiples or intervals of a given number

**Slide**—To move an item in any direction without rotating it

**Small**—Decreased in size

**Sort**—To seperate items according to a given attribute

**Sphere**—A ball; a three-dimensional solid that is perfectly round

**Square**—A shape with four straight sides that are the same length or size and four corners

**Square**–**based pyramid**—A pyramid with four triangular faces and one square face

**Standard**—Something considered by an authority or by general consent a basis of comparison (for example, rulers, cup measurers, scale)

**Star**—A pointy shape that has four or more pointed parts coming out from a center at equal distances

**Subtract**—To take one quantity away from another

**Survey**—A method of collecting data by asking people questions

**Symmetry**—When two sides of the whole are exactly like one another

#### T

**Take away**—To remove something

**Tall, Taller, Tallest**—To use to compare stature/height

**Tally**—To use marks to record counting; to count by fives to arrive at the total

**Tetrahedron**—A pyramid with four faces that are all triangles

**Three**–**dimensional**—A shape having three dimensions (length, width and height)

**Through**—To move in one side and out the other side

**Time**—The measured or measurable period during which an action, process or condition exists or continues

**Timeline**—A graphic representation of the passage of time as a line

**Total**—The complete amount of items counted

**Travel**—To move from one place to another

**Triangle**—A pointy shape with three sides and three corners

**Turn**—To rotate around a point

**Two**–**dimensional**—A shape having two dimensions (width and length)

#### U

**Under**—In a lower level than

**Up**—Toward the sky or higher position

#### V

**Vertical**—In an up-down position; upright

**Vertice**—The corner; the point where the edges of a solid figure meet

#### W

**Weigh**—To measure according to weight

**Whole**—All the parts; all, everything, total amount

**Width**—The extent from side to side or thr breadth