## One Duck Stuck

In this lesson, children will read the book and begin to recognize that each number is one more than the one before it and that a growing pattern is a pattern that increases or decreases by a constant difference.

### Lesson for:

Toddlers/Preschoolers

(See Step 5: Adapt lesson for toddlers or preschoolers.)

### Content Area:

Algebra

Data Analysis and Probability

Numbers and Operations

### Learning Goals:

This lesson will help toddlers and preschoolers **meet the following educational standards**:

- Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers and number systems
- Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another
- Understand patterns, relations and functions
- Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data

### Learning Targets:

After this lesson, toddlers and preschoolers should be **more proficient** at:

- Developing understanding of the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers and of ordinal and cardinal numbers and their connections
- Understanding the effects of adding and subtracting whole numbers
- Recognizing, describing and extending patterns such as sequences of sounds and shapes or simple numeric patterns and translating from one representation to another
- Analyzing how both repeating and growing patterns are generated
- Discussing events related to students’ experiences as likely or unlikely

## One Duck Stuck

### Lesson plan for toddlers/preschoolers

#### Step 1: Gather materials.

**The book,**by Phyllis Root**One Duck Stuck**,**Pocket chart or chart paper****55 small squares of paper or sticky notes****Snap cubes****Scissors and glue****Animal images from the book,****One Duck Stuck**

**Note**: Small parts pose a choking hazard and are not appropriate for children age five or under. Be sure to choose lesson materials that meet safety requirements.

#### Step 2: Introduce activity.

**Show**the class the book,*One Duck Stuck*. Look at the cover and let some of the children make**predictions**about the story before you begin reading.- As you read the book, stop and talk about the animals who are trying to help and
**count**them on each page. After the four crickets come to help, stop reading and**ask**the children: “What animal do you think will come next?” Field their responses and keep track of the animals that they**predict**. Then**ask**: “**How**many do you think will come?” Again, write down their**predictions**. The next page will reveal that five frogs come to help. Talk about the children’s**predictions**. For the children who guessed that five animals would come,**ask**: “How did you know?” - Continue to read, stopping one or two more times to let the children
**predict**and then discussing their**predictions**.

#### Step 3: Engage children in lesson activities.

- Give each child or pair of children 55 snap cubes of the same color.
**Explain**that you are going to read the story again and that they are going to make a cube train for each animal in the story. - Start reading and put one square or sticky note in the bottom row of the pocket chart and have the children take one snap cube for the duck.
- Next, place two squares next to the first one on the last row and next-to-last row of the pocket chart. Have the children make a stack of two cubes and place it next to the single cube.
- Continue reading and making the stacks until all 10 are made. When all of the cubes are lined up,
**smallest**to**largest**, the cube trains should look like a**triangle**. **Ask**the children to look at both of their cubes and the chart that you have made.**Ask**: “What do you notice?” (Triangle, stairs) Point out that the train**increases**by one each time.**Ask**: “What would happen if, instead of all of the animals working together, a new animal, like a dog, came to help? How many would need to come?”**Explain**that they are able to**predict**because the story follows a**pattern**.**Explain**that this is a**growing****pattern**because the numbers get bigger each time and always by one.**Explain**that, if 13 dogs came instead of 11 dogs, it would not follow the**pattern**, because that would be three more, instead of one more. If 13 animals came next instead of 11, it would not follow the pattern, because then there would be three more, instead of one.- Give each child a piece of construction paper, a copy of the animal pictures from the book, scissors and glue. Each child should cut the animal pictures apart and then glue them to the construction paper to recreate the growing pattern.
- Individually
**ask**the children to tell you about their papers.

**Additional Extensions**

- Work backwards in the book. After
**increasing**the number of animals that come to help,**decrease**the number of animals by inventing an extension to the story. Once the story is done and the children have their**triangle**-shaped cube train, tell the children that the animal’s parents are calling them for dinner. Using the snap cubes and the squares or sticky notes, continue the**pattern**in**descending**order. The cube train should look like a**pyramid**when you are finished.

#### Step 4: Vocabulary.

**Growing Pattern**:**growing pattern**because the numbers get bigger each time and always by one.”)**Predict**:**predict**how many animals will come next?”)**How many**:**how many**animals will come next?”)**Increase**: Get larger in size or number (e.g.,”The train**increases**by one each time.”)

#### Step 5: Adapt lesson for toddlers or preschoolers.

##### Adapt Lesson for Toddlers

###### Toddlers may:

- Struggle with the concept of
**growing patterns**

###### Child care providers may:

- Read the book more slowly and, when it comes times to add snap cubes, put the book down and help the children add the correct number of cubes and line up their cubes in ascending order
- Help the children line up the animals in the right order, reinforcing the concept of a growing pattern

##### Adapt Lesson for Preschoolers

###### Preschoolers may:

- Already understand the concept of a
**growing pattern**

###### Child care providers may:

- Work backwards in the book. After
**increasing**the number of animals that come to help,**decrease**the number of animals by inventing an extension to the story. Once the story is done and the children have their**triangle**-shaped cube train, tell the children that the animals’ parents are calling them for dinner. Using the snap cubes and the squares or sticky notes, continue the**pattern**in**descending**order. The cube train should look like a**pyramid**when you are finished.

### Suggested Books

by Phyllis Root (New York: Candlewick, 2003)*One Duck Stuck*

### Music and Movement

**Sing songs about numbers, such as “This Old Man” or “One, Two, Buckle My Shoe.”****Sing songs that add one word or action to each verse**, such as the following chant: “Hey, my name is Joe and I work in a button factory. I’ve got a wife and a dog and a family. One day the boss came up and said to me: ‘Hey Joe, are you busy?’ I said no. He said: ‘Turn the button with your _____.’” Repeat the verse six times. Continue to do each action as you add a new one:**1**. left hand**2**. right hand**3**. left foot**4**. right foot**5**. bottom**6**. tongue.

### Outdoor Connections

**Growing patterns is a great cross-curricular theme, especially in science**. To witness, analyze and chart how an object changes over a period of time is a comprehensive way in which children can link science and mathematics. Plant a garden from seeds. Sprout the seeds indoors (bean plants are good for this). Observe and chart their growth. Once the seedlings are planted, have the children measure and chart their growth. Keep the plant for the entire cycle and, when the plant dies, recycle the plant back into the ground.

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