## Playtime: Same/Different

Infants

### Content Area:

Algebra
Data Analysis and Probability
Numbers and Operations

Indoor Play

## Playtime: Same/Different

### Lesson plan for infants 0 to 6 months

#### Step 1: Review developmental stage: 0 to 6 months.

Play: Infants at this stage begin by using their eyes to explore toys and then start using their hands and mouths to explore. Their play consists primarily of shaking, banging and mouthing. By the end of this stage, they begin to look for dropped toys and may find a partially hidden object.

Communication: Young infants recognize their parents and familiar caregivers. They smile and laugh during playful interactions such as peek-a-boo. They make early cooing and babbling sounds.

Motor: When on their tummies, infants learn to hold up their heads and reach for toys. They start to reach and grasp for objects, beginning with the caregiver’s clothes and hair and then moving on to toys and objects. By the end of this stage, many infants may help hold their own bottles and help bring their bottles to their mouths. They may also begin to take pureed food from a spoon.

#### Step 2: Gather materials.

• Blocks of different sizes
• Balls of different sizes

Note: Small parts pose a choking hazard and are not appropriate for children age five or under. Be sure to choose lesson materials that meet safety requirements.

#### Step 3: Engage infant in lesson activities.

Place the infant on his/her tummy to play. Tummy time while the infant is awake is important for motor development. To help the infant begin to understand SAME and DIFFERENT, show the infant a variety of blocks and balls.

For SAME, show the infant two blocks or two balls and encourage the infant to look from one to the other. Tap the objects together and say: “SAME, these are both blocks.”

For DIFFERENT, show the infant a block and a ball. Name the items and encourage the infant to look from one to the other while naming each object and saying: “DIFFERENT, one is a block and one is a ball.”

Encourage the infant to reach for and grasp the toys. If the infant reaches for and grasps the block, offer the infant a second block and say: “SAME, you have two blocks.” Then show the infant the ball and say: “DIFFERENT, (child’s name) has blocks and (your name) has a ball.”

## Playtime: Same/Different

### Lesson plan for infants 6 to 12 months

#### Step 1: Review developmental stage: 6 to 12 months.

Play: At the beginning of this stage, play consists primarily of shaking, banging and mouthing toys. By the end of this stage, infants begin to combine objects that go together in play. They reach for and hold two objects and may begin to reach for a third. Many infants will look for dropped toys and find partially and completely hidden toys. Many infants enjoy taking things out and putting things into containers.

Communication: At this stage, infants respond when called by name. They may turn their heads, make eye contact and sometimes smile and vocalize. They may look for family members and pets when called by name. They may respond to simple requests made with gestures, such as, “Come here,” and they may understand “No” or “Stop.” They may lift their arms to be picked up, clap hands and wave bye-bye. They love to shout and squeal and may be babbling with many different sounds. They may be participating in, and sometimes initiating, peek-a-boo.

Motor: During this stage, many infants begin to sit by themselves and play. They begin to move by rolling, crawling and cruising. They pick up toys by using a raking motion with their whole hand and, by the end of this stage, they are using their fingers and thumbs to pick up small objects. They may feed themselves small bits of food.

#### Step 2: Gather materials.

• Blocks of different sizes
• Balls of different sizes

Note: Small parts pose a choking hazard and are not appropriate for children age five or under. Be sure to choose lesson materials that meet safety requirements.

#### Step 3: Engage infant in lesson activities.

Floor Play: Place the infant on the floor in a sitting position and sit down opposite the infant. If the infant is not yet sitting independently, place the infant in a supported-sit position in front of you. To help the infant begin to understand SAME and DIFFERENT, show the infant a variety of blocks and balls.

For SAME, offer the infant two blocks or two balls and encourage the infant to reach for and explore them. Tap the blocks together and say: “SAME, these are both blocks.”

For DIFFERENT, show the infant a block and a ball. Name the items and encourage the infant to reach for and explore one of the objects. Say: “DIFFERENT, (child’s name) has a block and (your name) has a ball.”

Model banging two blocks together at midline and encourage the infant to bang two blocks together. Say: “SAME, (child’s name) is banging two blocks.” Model banging a block and a ball together at midline and encourage the infant to bang a block and a ball together. Say: “DIFFERENT, (child’s name) is banging a block and a ball together.”

## Playtime: Same/Different

### Lesson plan for infants 12 to 18 months

#### Step 1: Review developmental stage: 12 to 18 months.

Play: At the beginning of this stage, many infants are imitating the use of everyday objects, such as cups and spoons. This moves into early pretend play when the infant may feed you or pretend to drink from a cup or eat off of an empty spoon. They also are great imitators and may enjoy imitating daily activities. They may enjoy putting multiple objects in containers and systematically searching for hidden toys and objects. Many infants will pat pictures in books and sometimes vocalize while looking at books.

Communication: At the beginning of this stage, many infants begin to respond to one-step directions, such as, “Give me the ball.” They may need gestures to help them understand the direction. At the end of this stage, many infants follow a related two-step direction without the help of gestures, such as, “Get the ball and give it to Daddy.” They may be pointing to ask for wants and needs and to ask you to name objects. At around 12 months of age, many infants say one to three words on their own. By the end of this stage, infants may say up to 15 or more words. Many infants play turn-taking games at this stage.

Motor: At the beginning of this stage, many infants are crawling and cruising to get around. By the end of this stage, infants are walking with good balance. They may also enjoy walking while carrying large objects and pulling toys. When given a crayon for the first time, they may mouth the crayon or mark the paper. By the end of this stage, many infants are scribbling on paper. They may be starting to scoop food with a spoon and actually get some to their mouths. Infants may also be using a straw or an open cup to drink.

#### Step 2: Gather materials.

• Blocks of different sizes
• Balls of different sizes

Note: Small parts pose a choking hazard and are not appropriate for children age five or under. Be sure to choose lesson materials that meet safety requirements.

#### Step 3: Engage infant in lesson activities.

Floor Play: Infants at this stage love to collect items found in their environments. Collect some blocks, balls and other small toys together with the infant. Place all of the items in a big pile. Allow the infant to play with the objects and place them in containers and then take them out again.

When the objects in the container are the SAME, point to the objects and say: “These are all blocks, they are the SAME.”

When the objects in the container are DIFFERENT, point to the objects and say: “(Child’s name), put blocks and balls in. They are DIFFERENT.”

Continue the game until the infant loses interest. At the end of the lesson, sort the objects with the infant putting the toys away in their proper places.

#### Reflections on this lesson

How might you teach the math lesson SAME-DIFFERENT during other daily activities and routines?

What books do you have in your child care setting that reinforce the math concept of SAME-DIFFERENT?

What songs or finger plays do you typically use in your child care setting that reinforce the math concept of SAME-DIFFERENT?